Monday, August 24, 2020

From Individualism to Unionism: The Changing Meaning of Freedom in Amer

From Individualism to Unionism: The Changing Meaning of Freedom in America In 1893, when Frederick Jackson Turner conveyed his discourse on the hugeness of outskirts at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, he was tending to a crowd of people that had seen the exceptional changes that moved through the nation in the course of the last sixty or so years. The United States had gone from the agrarian country of Jefferson’s visionâ€one with a generally adjusted division of riches, a populace of homogenous talented specialists, and a tight meaning of equity dependent on an expansive meaning of freedomâ€to the profoundly industrialized urban country celebrated by the World’s Fair itselfâ€one of enraptured riches, tremendous and expanding quantities of unassimilated, incompetent laborers, and an interest for an arrival to the old balance to the detriment of the old idea of opportunity. Turner’s postulation was strung with perceptions of these changes, and made an endeavor to represent them as far as the changing geology of America. â€Å"Each wilderness did without a doubt outfit another field of chance, a door of break from the subjugation of the past; and newness, and certainty, and disdain of more seasoned society, eagerness of its limitations and its ideas,† Turner composed (Turner, 17). Seen from this point of view, opportunity in pre-mechanical boondocks America was opportunity from a prevailing and brought together central government and towards what Turner named â€Å"that fretful, apprehensive vitality; that predominant individualism† (Turner, 17). This definition is upheld by journalists like William Legget, and John C. Calhoun, who contended against the union of expansive political force in the hands of a couple. In any case, that sort of opportunity relied on the open door for financial versatility for those looking for it,... ...y which to administer it. The open boondocks gave an outlet away from government and towards the individual, both strategically and monetarily. On the most down to earth level, modest land, requiring minimal capital venture, was consistently accessible in the domains and they offered a steady open door for financial development subsequently. Strategically, the possibility of wilderness resounded with Americans as a position of practically anarchic individual opportunity. The end of the outskirts represented both the finish of the sort of unregulated monetary development and the particular significance of opportunity that had been the signs of the nineteenth Century. Works Cited Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives. New York: Dover, 1971. Turner, Frederick Jackson. â€Å"The Significance of Frontier in American History.† In The Boondocks in American History. <>. 1-17.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Progressing Through Life

Advancing in life could be one of the most troublesome things that an individual should look during their lifetime. The difficulties and issues that they experience causes them to create as an individual, yet additionally gets them through remarkable agony. Denis Waitley a man known internationally for guiding a portion of the world's most popular competitors, said a statement that could relate back to creating throughout everyday life. He said â€Å"Don't harp on what turned out badly. Rather, center around what to do straightaway. Spend your energies on pushing ahead toward finding the answer.†In the novel The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, creating as an individual is depicted in a few unique manners through the principle character Amir. As a kid Amir confronted strife between his dad and himself for the most part since he was attempting to figure out how to learn and associate with his dad to assist him with making sense of how he needs to live. As he enters his high scho ol years he encounters insidious in this world direct, something a few people will never observe. Figuring out how to control himself and acknowledge how to deal with it is a significant advance for most people.Later when he enters adulthood he starts to assume liability and puts others in front of himself. Helping the individuals who can't help themselves is a chivalrous and wonderful thing to achieve throughout everyday life. During a human’s youth they face a great deal of self acknowledgment and this makes most children be confounded as they are continuing through the beginning periods of their lives. Amir's dad makes it exceptionally trying for Amir to create as a youngster since he doesn't have particularly regard for Amir and doesn't recognize him enough. â€Å"This is adults time.Why don't you go perused one of thosebooks of yours? † (Hosseini 3). This statement shows how Amir’s father overlooked him as he didn't exist. This made Amir get exceptionally b affled with his dad since all he at any point needed was to be acknowledged by him. Another point that relates back Baba not adoring cherishing Amir as much as he should, is when Baba is conversing with Rahim Kahn. They are discussing how Amir never stands up for himself and Hassan needs to do it for him. â€Å"Self barrier has nothing to do with ugliness. You realize what consistently happens when the local young men bother him?Hassan steps in and battles them off. I've seen it with my own eyes. What's more, when they returned home, I state to him, † How did Hassan get that scratch all over? â€Å"†¦ † he fell down† I'm letting you know, Rahim, there is something missing in that kid. â€Å"( Hosseini 18). This statement gives us how Baba has next to no regard for Amir since he accepts that he doesn't have a clue how to stand up for himself and this makes Baba disregard him more than he as of now does. This isn't totally Amir’s issue since he has nev er been instructed how to go to bat for himself.This is Baba’s work, as a dad and good example, to ensure he knows this. There is likewise when Baba attempts to connect with Amir and allow him to intrigue Baba however Amir neglects to dazzle him. At the point when Baba places Amir into soccer, he is trusting that Amir will check out it. Amir prefers the thought so he gives it a shot, yet when he does he discovers that he isn't acceptable at playing soccer and he can't get past this athletic test. He can't keep up and his father receives disappointed so he takes him in return and attempts to check whether viewing the soccer will be better for him.For the initial not many weeks Amir fakes being keen on it and his father before long gets on that he has no enthusiasm for it and needs to abandon him. (Hosseini 15). Amir feels as though he has not acquired any athletic capacity from Baba and this causes him to feel significantly more disheartened than he as of now is. All Amir at a ny point needed was to get his father’s endorsement and he neglects to do it in pretty much every circumstance as a youngster. As Amir entered his adolescent years he confronted the insidiousness on the planet direct. Amir saw an occasion that could scar any individual for their whole life.When Amir saw Hassan get explicitly ambushed he didn't take part in the circumstance to help out his companion Hassan. Amir held on and watched his closest companion give up to the young men who explicitly ambushed him. This circumstance relates back to the main point in this section in such a case that Baba would have shown Amir how to stand up for himself and his companions, he could have attempted to stop or forestall this loathsome situation. This circumstance identifies with the point in such a case that Amir would have forestalled the rape then he would not have felt so remorseful and lost his best friend.If this circumstance never happened it could have change his life totally. After Amir watched his closest companion get explicitly ambushed, this slowed down his development as a kid since he was feeling remorseful and didn't have the foggiest idea how to manage himself. (Hosseini 61). This is exhibited during the battle among Amir and Hassan at the pomegranate tree. Amir tosses a pomegranate at Hassan attempting to get him to toss one back at him since he needs to feel like he is even with Hassan again however Hassan doesn't react.Instead Hassan crushes one on his brow to show that he is faithful to Amir and wouldn't like to hurt him like Amir hurt him. (Hosseini 78). These last two models shows how Amir is creating and developing as an individual since he currently recognizes what he ought to do in a circumstance like that in the event that it ever happens again and it additionally shows him how he ought to be faithful to each individual you are near throughout everyday life. In Amir’s later youngster years his dad chooses to move to America to escape from all the malicious that was beginning to occur in Kabul.He feels this is a decent decision for him and Amir since it will allow them to begin another life in an alternate nation. ( Hosseini 93) This is a defining moment in Amir's life since he gets an opportunity to live in an alternate domain and take the entirety of the information he has picked up and apply it to his new life. At the point when Amir enters his adulthood he keeps on developing and begins to apply all that he has learned through his encounters while growing up as a youngster and adolescent. After Amir discovers that Hassan has died, his first nature is to proceed to spare his child Sohrab.Amir returns back to Kabul and discovers that Sohrab is heavily influenced by the Taliban. As Amir at long last discovers Sohrab he is confronted with the pioneer of the Taliban which is the man who explicitly attacked Hassan as a youngster. Amir at that point penances himself for Sohrab and gets destroyed from the pioneer and escapes with Sohrab later on. (Hosseini 247). This is indicating that Amir has made sense of that he needs to put others before himself at times so as to make them cheerful and make the right decision. It is a significant advance for Amir since he has not done this before.After Amir salvages Sorhab from the Taliban he carries him to an inn so they can remain together until he takes him back to America. The morning after they settle at the lodging, Sohrab flees to a Mosque and Amir had no clue where he went. Amir at that point began to freeze since he realized that Sohrab was presently his duty. Amir at that point asks the man at the front work area a few inquiries until he makes reference to the Mosque and Amir promptly ran there planning to discover Sohrab. He discovers Sohrab there and has an immense weight lifted off of his shoulders since he has discovered him, and realizes that he is alright. (Hosseini 271).As Amir remains with Sohrab he is attempting to get the papers which p ermits him to enter America. At the point when Amir initially meets the man attempting to assist him with getting Sohrab into America he faces a significant issue that turns into a hindrance. The man reveals to Amir that Sohrab won't have the option to leave Kabul until Amir gets evidence that he is the uncle of Sohrab. (Hosseini 290). This daring test would have been incredibly hard for Amir to deal with already however since he is presently entirely dependable and intellectually more grounded, he currently tries sincerely and does what is important to make it feasible for Sohrab to return to America with Amir.Amir has developed and grown essentially since his adolescence and now acknowledges how he can have in sway on different people’s lives on the off chance that he truly dedicates himself to it. Mary Engelbreit once stated, â€Å"If you don’t like something change it; on the off chance that you can’t transform it, change the manner in which you consider it . † Developing in life is a troublesome test for a great many people, yet for some it is something that they can do expedite. In this novel it is near unimaginable for Amir to create in the principle phases of his life due to the kind of individual he is.In his youth he attempts to get his dads endorsement, yet later discovers that it will be significantly more testing than it might appear. As he enters his adolescent years Amir presented to the universes insidious direct. He witness' an occasion that he could have changed yet neglects to do so as a result of his absence of information. At that point when Amir turns into a grown-up he at long last begins to make sense of how to assume the liability for other people and put others before himself so as to fulfill them. Amir at last creates throughout everyday life and scrutinizes everything that he has learned. Amir has made considerable progress and now can say that he is a completely evolved man.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Tips and Advice for Writing Great Psychology Papers

Tips and Advice for Writing Great Psychology Papers Student Resources APA Style and Writing Print Tips for Writing Psychology Papers By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on January 21, 2020 Hero Images / Getty Images More in Student Resources APA Style and Writing Study Guides and Tips Careers Students are often surprised to discover how much writing is required for psychology college courses. Those majoring in psychology are often expected to write a wide variety of papers, ranging from lab reports to research papers. In almost all cases, you will need to structure your paper in a specific way and follow the rules of APA format.   Why Learning to Write Psychology Papers Is Important The ability to write well is one of the most important skills you can gain as a psychology major. Most psychology courses require a significant amount of writing, including essays, case studies, research reports, and other papers. Learning effective communication skills will help you succeed in high school, university, graduate school, and the workforce. How can you improve your writing skills? Start by viewing each class assignment as an opportunity to learn and practice. Check out resources offered by your school, such as tutors or writing labs, and learn more about the different types of psychology writing. The following resources offer tips, guidelines, and advice on how to write psychology papers. If you are struggling with how to start a psychology paper, following some of the guidelines below may help. Basic Tips for Writing Psychology Papers If you have never written a psychology paper before, you need to start with the basics. Psychology writing is much like other types of writing, but most instructors will have special requirements for each assignment. Before you start a psychology paper, youll need to learn more about what you should write about, how you should structure your paper, and what type of sources you should use. Always check the grading rubric for an assignment before you begin writing and brush up on the basics. How to Write a Psychology Case Study Students taking courses in abnormal psychology, child development, or psychotherapy will often be expected to write a case study on an individualâ€"either real or imagined. Case studies vary somewhat, but most include a detailed history of the client, a description of the presenting problem, a diagnosis, and a discussion of possible treatments. This type of paper can be both challenging and interesting. You will get a chance to explore an individual in great depth and find insights into their behaviors and motivations. Before you begin your assignment, learn more about how to write a psychology case study. How to Write a Psychology Lab Report Lab reports are commonly assigned in experimental or research-based psychology courses. The structure of a lab report is very similar to that of a professional journal article, so reading a few research articles is a good way to start learning more about the basic format of a lab report. There are some basic rules to follow when writing a psychology lab report. Your report should provide a clear and concise overview of the experiment, research or study you conducted. Before you begin working on your paper, read more about how to write a psychology lab report. How to Write a Psychology Critique Paper Psychology critique papers are often required in psychology courses, so you should expect to write one at some point in your studies. Your professor may expect you to provide a critique on a book, journal article, or psychological theory. Students sometimes find that writing a critique can actually be quite challenging. How can you prepare for this type of assignment? Start by reading these tips and guidelines on how to write a psychology critique paper. Remember to  Edit Your Psychology Paper Before you turn in any type of psychology writing, it is vital to proofread and edit your work for errors, typos, and grammar. Do not just rely on your computers spellchecker to do the job! Always read thoroughly through your paper to remove mistakes and ensure that your writing flows well and is structured logically. Finally, always have another person read your work to spot any mistakes you may have missed. After you have read something so many times, it can become difficult to spot your own errors. Getting a fresh set of eyes to read through it can be very helpful. Plus, your proofreader can ask questions and point out areas that might not be clear to the reader. Know the Rules of  APA Format Not learning APA format is a mistake that costs points for many students. APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association and is used in many different types of science writing, especially the social sciences. Before you hand in any writing assignment, always double-check your page format, in-text citations, and references for correct APA format. If you need directions or examples, check out this guide to APA format. A Word From Verywell Writing psychology papers is an important part of earning a degree in psychology. Even non-majors often find themselves writing such papers when taking general education psychology classes. Fortunately, paying attention to the directions provided by your instructor, familiarizing yourself with APA style, and following some basic guidelines for different types of psychology papers can make the process much easier.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Risk Assessment Abstract and Annotated Bibliography

Risk Assessment Abstract and Annotated Bibliography UMUC Abstract The Department of Veterans Affairs is one of the largest departments in the United States government. They employ over 300,000 civilian workers providing various services to over 28 million of our nations Veterans to include: education assistance, life insurance, burial benefits, medical benefits, pension and retirement information and finally disability compensation. The function of this department is to continue necessary support of Veterans after they have left the armed services and are attempting to make the transition back into civilian life. The IT Systems and applications that the VA uses currently to support all of these former soldiers and their†¦show more content†¦The author sheds light on several different instances where the government has failed to put the proper tools in place to secure sensitive and classified data within its IT sector. They highlight the unfortunate security incident that took place at the VA and the steps taken thereafter to try and fix the problems within cyber security. They also discuss the importance of utilizing FISMA and NIST guidelines in an effort to try and fix the issues within a lot of the lower rated government agencies. The author also discusses how the low ratings are actually a vast improvement from the previous scores received by the government in the past and what was done to obtain the higher marks. This article is relevant to my risk assessment because it highlights where the government currently is in terms of cyber security and how cloud computing can possibly b ring them even further down if not used properly. 4. Powers, V. (2008). Data Defense. Government Technology, 21(4), 44-45. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. The author discusses the situation surrounding the VA and the stolen laptop incident which resulted in the loss of several million Veterans personal identifiable information (PII). This incident received national scrutiny and is considered to be one of the most embarrassing moments within the VA and the author goes on to discuss theShow MoreRelatedLearning and Cognition Essay1306 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Annotated Bibliography: Foundation for a course Project PSYC 3500; Learning and Cognition U5A1: Annotated Bibliography Capella University November, 2013 Annotated Bibliography: Foundation for a course Project This paper contains an annotated bibliography for a paper which will serve as the final project for a course on the subject of learning and cognition. The paper for which this bibliography was prepared originally was to focus on whetherRead MoreJadm 430 Complete Course - Devry ( All Assignments - Dqs and Midterm Exam)3666 Words   |  15 Pages2, 5, and 6. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Australia s Present Laws Regulating Human Rights

In Australia, present laws regulating human rights are protected in unlike most similar liberal democracies; Australia has no Bill of Rights to protect human rights in a single document. Rather rights may be found across the Constitution, common law and legislation – Acts passed by the Commonwealth Parliament or State or Territory Parliaments. This allows legislatures and judiciaries a complementary role in protecting rights. This is the most fluid and flexible system but the least secure in terms of protection as these laws are becoming increasingly inadequate with community values and expectations. This method places the legislature in the dominant position because its statutes can override common law. Therefore Australia needs a bill of†¦show more content†¦The writes are written explicitly in the Constitution however the Constitution doesn’t contain a Bill of Rights following the British example. The Constitution contains five express rights; the right to t rial by jury for Commonwealth indictable offences (s80) however not applicable to most offences which are the states responsibility; free exercise of religion (s1116); freedom of discrimination on the basis of residence (s117); freedom from interstate trade and commerce (s92); right to be compensated when the Commonwealth acquires your property (s51). The Australian Constitution is not a Bill of Rights as it doesn’t guarantee; equality of all people in Australia under the law, fundamental freedoms such as the freedom of movement, association, peaceful assembly, freedom of thought, belief and opinion, or arbitrary arrest or detention, or the right to a fair trial or due process for crimes under state laws. The Constitution is based upon the principle of representative democracy – implied freedom is therefore for political discussion which has full participation in government. The Foreign Fighters Bill 2014 is aimed at disrupting radicals and their

Argumentative Essay-Underage Drinking Free Essays

Jane Doe Ms. Smith English 11 17 October 2011 Underage Drinking and You According to Answers. com, an average of twelve thousand nine hundred eighty two people die a year from underage drinking; many of them being car accidents. We will write a custom essay sample on Argumentative Essay-Underage Drinking or any similar topic only for you Order Now With so many people underage drinking, I feel that the law should be heavily enforced that underage drinking is NOT okay. There should be no underage drinking, whatsoever, under the legal age of twenty one. Underage drinking is very hard on the human’s brain development. The front part of your brain, the decision maker, is not fully developed until you are an adult. Drinking before that age can impact your brains healthy development. Many people may not know how to handle drinking, and the amount that their body is consuming. Some people may argue that alcohol makes them â€Å"feel good. † These people obviously have no concept of life, because if you do other things you enjoy such as; sports, clubs, movies, hang out with friends, etc. You could find many other activities that can make you feel good. Underage drinking cause’s people to make bad decisions, such as; driving while intoxicated, becoming pregnant, and making a complete fool of themselves while intoxicated, are just be a few instances that can and will impact your life forever. Some individuals don’t understand what alcohol really does to the body. Beer has empty calories that will make you gain weight. Which is why a lot of alcoholics have larger stomachs, or another term many people use for these large stomachs is, â€Å"beer belly. Some people may say that alcohol helps you escape your problems and is a stress relevant. Alcohol will not only bring more stress onto your life, it will also bring more problems. As much as people may feel alcohol helps, it really won’t help. If you need help that bad, I would suggest a therapist to help you with your problems, not a depressant. So that doesn’t make a whole lot of sense. The last statement to be made about underage drinking is the fact that i t will start to make you feel completely careless. Your grades in school, and in life for that matter, will drop. School is a huge part of our everyday life. It is the main component to a happy future, because without your education you will not be successful in life. Most teens will argue that their brains are already developed and that â€Å"everyone is doing it†. In reality, your brain is actually not fully developed as told above. And everyone is not doing it, if everyone did it, everyone would be bums. The individuals, who are strong believers in not drinking alcohol while under the age, are very successful in life. But not all people will follow in their footsteps. There are many reasons to back up the fact that underage drinking should be heavily enforced. Remember how hard alcohol is on the brain, your bodily development, and the struggles it will make you go through in life. Alcohol is not the answer to any of our problems. Take a stand in your life and make the right decisions. What will you decide is the right choice for you? How to cite Argumentative Essay-Underage Drinking, Essays

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Organizational Perspective free essay sample

Running Head: ORGANIZATION PERSPECTIVES Organization Perspective OM8010 – Principles of Organization – Theory and Practice Dr. Robin Parry Capella University August 8, 2011 Organization Perspective Abstract As organizations experience increase organizational rigidity, performance declines can be driven by decrease in innovative change and employee turnover, understanding these shifts are critical to the bottom line. A major responsibility for top managers is to interpret these shifts and to understand the complexity of organizations, to be able to respond effectively. Understanding how the three multiple theoretical perspectives: modernism, symbolic- interpretive, and post modernism apply with the assumptions ontology and epistemology as indicators used to analyze, make changes, and decisions, for daily activities of an organization. Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006), contends that an organization is a formal structure with an internal order, a set of natural laws governing its operation, rather than operate from a subjectivity manner of management. Obtaining a working knowledge of each perspective and being able to determine how to apply the principles and concepts offers reliance and continuity within an organizational structure. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Perspective or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Applying the principles of organization theory and understanding how these different perspectives according to Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) can influence the way others experience, interpret, and shape organizational realities. Organization Perspective The rapid growth of the globalization era has changed the way businesses operate. With this rapid growth businesses have made major changes in the way in which they operate. With the introduction of computers and other technology, changed the way in which information is given and received. The old outdated ways of doing business has changed drastically. Thus the modernism era was created. Due to the complexity of organizations the need to interpret structural changes that occur within the structure of organizations, often creates a deficit in making innovative decisions can be critical to the bottom line. These structure shifts and changes lead to a decline in authority, lack of reliance in maintaining formalized processes and procedures, and reduce the flow of information passed down from top managers. According to Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) organizational theory (OT) and understanding how the theoretical perspectives apply within an organization can influence the way others experience, interpret; develop critical thinking skills, needed to increase productivity, to shape, and to manage the functions of an organization. The purpose of this paper is to identify and define the three organizational theoretical perspectives: modernism, symbolic- interpretive, and post modernism; compare and contrast the possibilities for designing and managing these perspectives within an organization. Define the assumptions of ontology and epistemology and the effects from using the three theoretical perspectives within the organizational structure to enhance the quality of management style. Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) provides an overview of the conception of the three theoretical perspectives: modernism, symbolic- interpretive, and post modernism perspectives. The inception of these terms occurred during the time of the Great Transformation, scholars tried to explain the emerging changes around them. The Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution period contributed to theoretical formations for early theorists like Emile Durkeim (1949), Karl Marx (1954) and Max Weber (1947). They were concerned about the structures that emerged around them, and how people were impacted within organizational structure. Early management practitioners adopted Scientific Management as a way to run organizations. Forefathers of management: Winslow Taylor (1911) and Henri Fayol (1949) were highly esteemed for their systems and methods that were widely applied across the world. Modernism was birthed (Hatch (with Cunliffe), 2006). As a note, Hatch with the assistance of Cunliffe contributed an enormous amount of time and research into developing the methodology that is now used to explain the three theoretical perspectives, and considered an expert in this field. Cites from their research will be used to support this argument. Based on research by Hatch and Cunliffe, the theoretical perspectives emphasized efficiency, and effectiveness that would give a voice not only to the criticisms raised against organization theory, but also as a tool of ‘mangerialism’ (Hatch (with Cunliffe), 2006). In modernist organization theories, the organizational environment according to Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006), is conceptualized as entities that lie outside the boundaries of the organizations to provide raw materials, and other resources, products, and services, which influence the outcome of organizations. Modernists see the world existing independently, whether they interact with it or not. Reality is waiting to be discovered through concepts and theories. The need to analyze these conditions and trends associated with general environment factors links the organization to the environment properties. The modernist perspective focuses on how to increase efficiency, and considered an objective indicators of performance through the application of theories relating to structure and control according to Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006). Modernist perspective focus primarily on individuals; treats risk preferences as an attempt to quantify risk without a negative impact in the decision making process. By this view, risks are a social and multilevel phenomenon; risk preferences, perceptions, and responses are learned; risk can be perceived subjectively and often unquantifiable. The environment is a complex, socially constructed system; ethical considerations are integral to risk assessment and management; and organizations respond to risk through their actions, not just by making decisions. These themes motivate new directions for opportunities within the organization (Esade McKelvey, 2010). According to Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006), the prospective of Symbolic-interpretive extends the definition of empirical reality to include experiences that lie outside the reach of the five senses, to include emotions and intuition. As a result, this concept is subject to subjectivity, and cannot be easily replicated by others. The symbolic-interpretive perspective focus on meaning and understandings, resulting in findings that are presented in generalized fashion. In contrast, modernist perspectives focus on the organization as an independent objective entity and take a positive approach to generating knowledge. The symbolic-interpretive perspective focuses on the organization as a community sustained by human relationships and uses predominantly subjective ontology and an interpretive epistemology. In general, the symbolic perspective expands the boundaries of consideration for modernists (e. g. waste is not considered waste, if it is resold), while the postmodernist perspective forces on the modernist to consider injustices within this framework (e. . Corporate Social Responsibility). Also, the symbolic interpretive perspective can reveal the fragile state of an organization; and if it is depending on its employees to survive. It can be said quite literally, that employees can make or break a company according to Drago (1999). According to Esade and McKelvey (2010) Postmodernism, a movement that emerged in the late 1960s to challenge the bas ic tends of modernism and its epistemological assumption. Esade and McKelvey (2010) suggest that OT has been pulled in opposite directions by modernist and postmodernist ontologisms. Organizational scholars, are caught between the two conflicting bases of legitimacy with little overall consensus on what constitutes valid truth claims. Hardy and Palmer (1999) indicate that postmodern approaches are relatively new to management and OT brings a number of challenges for management. Postmodernism is presented with a degree of debate, disagreement, and emotion rarely found in the usually more phlegmatic world of organization and lack the traditional characteristics of organizations. The complexity and the dynamics of organization structure plays an important role in the understanding how businesses operate in today’s culture. Organizational social structure is considered the relatively stable pattern of social behavior within organizations that constrain and enable individual action, (Hatch (with Cunliffe), 2006). Considering Hatch’s (with Cunliffe) (2006), definition of organizations states that there are several meanings. Organizations can be social, technology, cultural, and physical structures that are all a part of the organizational environment. These perspectives contribute to control, conflict, decision-making, power, politics, and change; and are also concepts used to define the science of (OT). Organizations operate in complex, uncertain, and often contradictory situations. According to Tsoukas and Knudsen (2005), concepts from OT have been discussed for the past 150 years, post industrial revolution and new concepts have a direct and indirect impact on the environment in how organizations operate today. People in organizations are self-directing and self-designing. As they form cliques and speak the same lingo to share information and solve problems; organizations can also be viewed as a community of practices (Lave Wenger, 1991). Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006), contends that due to the complexity and pluralism of organizations, managers who make sense of and use multiple perspectives are more equipped to use their knowledge of OT to analyze, make decisions and plans for their organization’s daily activities. Cui, Tamma, and Bellifemine (1999) confirms in a competitive business market, large organizations have developed ontology management practices in order respond quickly to market opportunities. Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) suggest that each perspective: modernism, symbolic-interpretive and postmodernism makes distinctive contributions to OT. Integrating these perspectives into organizational structures and the effects of ontology and epistemology assumptions are equally important. Developing an understanding of OT, and how to theorize, and understand how these different perspectives will influence and shape the realities that exist within an organization. Sutkowski (2010) contends that the paradigm of management epistemology is based on functional and interpretative assumptions. Many ideas regarding corporate culture, management human resources management, and management processes or managing changes are based on epistemological assumptions of the symbolic interpretative approach. The symbolic-interpretative perspective is a competitive cognitive approach related to a functional-systemic concept that can be described as interpretative, symbolic or qualitative. Symbolic-interpretative perspective is a competitive cognitive approach in relation to the functional-systemic concept described as interpretative, symbolic, or qualitative. According to Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) the basis of interpretative epistemology is assumption of constructional and convention social reality of an organization. Drago (1999) indicates that organizational stakeholders, individuals, and groups have the ability to influence decision-making in an organization. Stakeholders play an important role in determining the direction, goals and strategies that organization adopts. Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) suggest that it is important to understand the differences in the application of each perspective and grasp knowledge of the concepts and theories that provide distinctive thinking tools needed to analyze various situations, and decisions that are made within a business environment. Burns, Cooper and West (2003) suggest that organizational learning is the new paradigm for managing organizations. This interest in and promotion of organizational learning, especially in the business world, stemmed from two major concerns: the rapid changing nature of the world in which we live in; and the increasingly competitive environment in which firms operate. Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006) contends that the best theories are those that as employees and stakeholders have found or invented to match their personal experiences that exist in the business world. The challenge is to learn the theories of organizations and organizing what others have developed to evaluate the skills needed to broaden an appreciation for the possibilities that exist within the organization. The modernist perspective focuses on the independent objectivity of an organization and takes a positive approach to generating knowledge, increase efficiency, effectiveness as it relates to structure and control. Esade and McKelvey (2010) interpretation of integrating modernist and postmodernist perspectives in an organization contends that modernist aim for reliable in knowledge. In doing so, modernist often impose oversimplified interpretations of data that may obscure the effects of power and bias. In summary, modernism advances knowledge when phenomena are independent of each other or can be made so to control the experience. Both modernists and postmodernists aim for reliable knowledge while holding competing ontologies, they usually result in opposite ends. Esade and McKelvey (2010) conclude that as organizational scholars, opinions are often conflicting based on legitimacy, with little overall consensus on what constitutes valid truth. In comparing and contrasting the three theoretical perspectives Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006), opinion for instance indicates that modernists consider objectivity and scientific finding as most crucial and that subjectivity undermines scientific rigor, whereas, symbolic-interpretive consider context and subjectivity as most important are factual. Post modernists usually are open to philosophies, which rarely support one particular view. Modernists typically believe that subjectivity understands bias, and bias is precisely what science seeks to eradicate in pursuit of the rational ideals of modernism. The need to understand the differences in application of each perspective is needed to evaluate the results and outcome of methods used in the organization. Tsoukas and Knudsen (2005) suggest that modernist perspective implies the importance of generalization of concepts and categories as they relate to the particulars of experiences that occur within organizations. As a consequence, visible end-states and outcomes are elevated over processes of change. According only the basic epistemological assumptions that provide inspiration, precision, and accuracy as these concepts represent and explain the social phenomena of organizations. Integrating modernist and postmodernist perspective approaches are used to evaluate the management style, and culture, as organizations define specific concepts that set them apart from other organizations in their industry, Cui, Tamma, and Bellifemine (1999), states that ontology has been studied by many projects both in academia and industry. Most of these projects provide some level of ontology development support. The need to understand the differences in application of each perspective is needed to evaluate the results and outcome of methods used in the organization. To analyze the methodological differences between the two theoretical approaches, epistemological, and ontological, Jenz (2003) suggest defines core business process management ontology is applicable in industries and organizations around the globe. Jenz (2003) defines basic concepts that can be found and needed in every organization regardless of industry, such as resource, organization, resource, organization unit, role, business process, and business rule are components of all organizations. While Cui, Tamma and Bellifemine 1999) contend that ontologies are considered as a vehicle to make the meanings of terms explicit so that information can be shared with minimal misunderstanding. Identifying the effects of the three perspective and the assumptions within the management of an organization can enhance the overall quality of an organization. Barker and Mone (1998) contend that failure to identify these changes within an organization will result in less than favorable results. Barker and Mone (1998) suggest as changes occur within organizations during turnaround phase will result in different outcomes. As an organization changes from management perspective to another, and how that change is managed within the organization will affect organization is different ways. Based on Barker and Mone (1998) research declining organization often experience mechanistic structural changes that centralize authority, increase reliance on formalized procedures, and reduce the flow of information from top management down to employees. As these changes occur, the need to change from one theoretical perspective to another can be a challenge. When these changes are ignored, the end result reduces the organizations capability to make innovative organizational decisions that could result in demise to the organization. Barker and Mone (1998) contend that when changes occur with the corporate structure such as acquisition, and or acquiring other entities from other organization, harvesting or liquidating internal controls, changing priorities, and traditional, all require evaluating the perspective of the organization. Barker and Mone (1998) conclude that during change the symbolic interpretive perspective reveals just how fragile an organization can become; and dependent on its employees for survival. Employees can make or break a company. Hatch (with Cunliffe) (2006), presents two types of management systems introduced by Burns and Stalker; mechanistic and organic. These management systems are used to define the stability or instability of an environment. According to Burns and Stalker, during stable environments, mechanistic organizations outperform organic organizations, while unstable environments organic organizations tend to be more successful. Due to the complexity of some organization in terms of horizontal and vertical management structure, the greater the need to communication effectively, especially during phases of integration according to Hatch (with Cunliffe), (2006). In summary, the study of OT is one of the most useful sciences that involve theories that encompass the study of organization from multiple viewpoints, methods, and level of analysis. The interpretations of theoretical perspectives are not cast in stone, they are ways to think, and stimulate different thoughts (Hatch (with Cunliffe), 2006). Each perspective has a different approach concerning the structure, culture or even the technology, which applied to the social structure of an organization. If left unchecked, the results may be detrimental to the stakeholders, managers, and employees. Managers can approach problems within an organization to assist them in creating more possibilities for designing and managing their organizations, to include a better understanding of organizational social structures that lead to effective decision making capabilities. This research has been presented as an attempt to define and explain how multiple perspective approaches (modernist, symbolic interpretive, post-modernist) assist in achieving a more comprehensive understanding of complex organizational phenomena. References Barker, V. L. , Mone, M. A. (1998). The Mechanistic structure shift and strategic reorientation in declining firms attempting turnover. Human Relations. Vol. 51. No. 10. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from the AB/Inform Global Database. Burns, B. , Cooper, C. West, P. (2003). Organizational learning: the new management paradigm? Management Decision. Vol. 41. Pg. 452. 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